Big Ben and the English Parliament (London)

Wednesday, January 29, 2014


  • Connectors are linking words and phrases which join ideas and help us organize our writing.
  • They can be used for giving examples, listing or sequencing, giving reason, expressing contrast, etc.

  • Here you can see some examples:
 Optical discs can store data at much higher densities than magnetic disks. They are therefore ideal for multimedia applications. (result)
Furthermore, optical discs are not affected by magnetic fields. (addition)
However, they are very different in internal structure and data capacity. (contrast)
As a result, a CD can hold 650-700MB (result), whereas a basic DVD can hold 4.7GB. (contrast)
In addition, a DVD can be double-sided and dual layer. (addition)
  • There are many other examples of connectors: indicating addition (moreover, besides, and), used for making contrasts (although, but, on the other hand), explaining the results or the effects of something (so, thus, consequently, because)
  • If you need a more detailed explanation, you can click this LINK.

Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Storage Devices.

  • We can find different storage devices such as magnetic (hard and floppy disks), optical and flash memory.
  • CDs and DVDs are optical devices. Optical discs can store data at much higher densities than magnetic disks. Listen to this recording and find out the main characteristics and advantages of CDs and DVDs. You can also read the audioscript HERE.

  • The Cloud is an off-site storage system for your data that is maintained by a third party. Read the whole article HERE.


  • Telecommunications is a general term for a vast array of technologies that send information over distances. Mobile phones, land lines, satellite phones and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) are all telephony technologies -- just one field of telecommunications. Radio, television and networks are a few more examples of telecommunication. Read the whole article in
  • Click on the picture and watch the video of about the telegraph and the birth of telecommunications.

  • What are the most important inventions in the last 200 years? What would be life like without them?

Wednesday, January 8, 2014


  • Warnings are used to ensure safety, to prevent damage to equipment and breaches of security and to ensure the law is not broken. The simplest warnings are basic instructions NOT to do something: Don't do X / No + -ing / Avoid +-ing / Never do X
  • Sometimes the warning is twinned with matching good practice: Always do X, never do Y / Do X rather than Y
  • Warnings may be made stronger by using must/mustn't and in some cases should/shouldn't. (Do this exercise to see the difference)
  • If there's any reason to fear the warning may not be understood, a reason for the warning may be added: Never use a screwdriver to extract ICs, the pins are very fragile
  • EXERCISE: Rewrite each of these warnings and give a reason where appropriate:
    - Don't give open access to PCs (avoid)
    Avoid giving open access to PC because you can be hacked/ you may get viruses.
    - You must not use your own programs on these machines (never)
    Never use your own programs because you may introduce viruses.
    - No coffee in this lab (must not)
    You must not drink coffee in this lab because the keyboards can get wet/be damaged.
    - Avoid giving financial information in a chat room (don't)
    Don’t give financial information in a chat room because you can be cheated/phished.
    - Never give out your password (always)
    Always protect your password because it is important for your private life
    - Don't use out-of-date antivirus software (use)
    Use up to date antivirus software to protect your PC
    - Never use a computer that has been standing for a long time in a cold environment without waiting until it has reached normal room temperature (always)
    Always wait until your computer has reached normal room temperature before using it or you may damage the hard disk.
    - Cards must not be removed from their anti-static packing until required (never)
    Never remove cards from their anti static packing because you can damage them.
    - Use an IC extraction tool, don't use a screwdriver (rather than)
    Use an IC extraction tool rather than a screwdriver.
    - Always ensure the power is switched off when working on a computer (must not)
    You must not work on a power-connected computer because you can get shocked/electrocuted.
  • You can find an interesting explanation on modals and do some exercises HERE.
  • Download Modal Verbs worksheet HERE.